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We invest heavily to make Windows the most secure, manageable, and capable operating system for the needs of a modern workforce. We distribute our devices through third-party retailers. Hawkins, Jeff ; Blakeslee, Sandra According to one overview, [] the expression "Deep Learning" was introduced to the Machine Learning community by Rina Dechter in [] and gained traction after Igor Aizenberg and colleagues introduced it to Artificial Neural Networks in

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View All Customer Stories. Logic machines in fiction and List of fictional computers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 24 January For other uses, see AI disambiguation and Artificial intelligence disambiguation. Intelligence demonstrated by machines. History of artificial intelligence and Timeline of artificial intelligence.

Knowledge representation and Commonsense knowledge. Automated planning and scheduling. Machine perception , Computer vision , and Speech recognition. Artificial general intelligence and AI-complete. Cybernetics and Computational neuroscience.

Search algorithm , Mathematical optimization , and Evolutionary computation. Logic programming and Automated reasoning. Expectation-maximization clustering of Old Faithful eruption data starts from a random guess but then successfully converges on an accurate clustering of the two physically distinct modes of eruption. Classifier mathematics , Statistical classification , and Machine learning. Artificial neural network and Connectionism.

Progress in artificial intelligence and Competitions and prizes in artificial intelligence. Applications of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence in healthcare.

Artificial intelligence in government. Artificial intelligence video games. Artificial intelligence arms race , Lethal autonomous weapon , and Unmanned combat aerial vehicle. Philosophy of artificial intelligence and Ethics of artificial intelligence. Existential risk from artificial general intelligence. Computer Power and Human Reason. Hard problem of consciousness and Theory of mind. Computationalism and Functionalism philosophy of mind. Technological singularity and Moore's law.

Artificial intelligence in fiction. Artificial intelligence portal Abductive reasoning Behavior selection algorithm Business process automation Case-based reasoning Commonsense reasoning Emergent algorithm Evolutionary computation Glossary of artificial intelligence Machine learning Mathematical optimization Multi-agent system Robotic process automation Soft computing Weak AI Personality computing.

Some systems are so brittle that changing a single adversarial pixel predictably induces misclassification. Note that they use the term "computational intelligence" as a synonym for artificial intelligence. Archived from the original on 10 March Simon , p. Minsky , p. McCorduck , pp. Kolata quotes McCarthy as writing: McCarthy recently reiterated his position at the AI 50 conference where he said "Artificial intelligence is not, by definition, simulation of human intelligence" Maker Nilsson , p.

Back and forth between myth and reality, our imaginations supplying what our workshops couldn't, we have engaged for a long time in this odd form of self-reproduction. Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 13 January The Advent of the Algorithm. Gale Virtual Reference Library, http: ACM , I. What's driving today's progress in AI? Retrieved 13 April Archived from the original on 1 February Archived from the original on 22 December Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original on 2 June Archived from the original on 1 April Archived from the original on 11 August Archived from the original on 23 November Retrieved 23 November After a half-decade of quiet breakthroughs in artificial intelligence, has been a landmark year.

Computers are smarter and learning faster than ever. Retrieved 2 May Retrieved 4 November Selective sampling for nearest neighbor classifiers. Machine learning, 54 2 , — Retrieved 24 March Retrieved 12 March Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics XI.

Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics. Communications of the ACM. Autonomous cars aren't coming tomorrow or next year ". Retrieved 27 March Artificial Intelligence and Law.

See list of cognitive biases for several examples. Semantic networks , description logics , inheritance including frames and scripts: Situation calculus , event calculus , fluent calculus including solving the frame problem: Belief calculus , modal logics: Description Logics in Multimedia Reasoning. Archived from the original on 29 August Image and Vision Computing. Opportunities, Hurdles, and Recommendations". Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

The Knowledge Engineering Review. See Dreyfus' critique of AI Gladwell Gladwell's Blink is a popular introduction to sub-symbolic reasoning and knowledge. Turing In , at the original Dartmouth AI summer conference, Ray Solomonoff wrote a report on unsupervised probabilistic machine learning: Trends, perspectives, and prospects".

Toward the Robust-Perception Age". Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 24 April From unimodal analysis to multimodal fusion". The Search for Artificial Intelligence". Retrieved 20 March Retrieved 26 April Moravec Kurzweil , p.

Biologically inspired cognitive architectures". Crevier , pp. McCorduck , p. Retrieved 28 April Other definitions also include knowledge and learning as additional criteria. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications. In Burke, Edmund K. Are there computers that are inherently fuzzy and do not apply the usual binary logic? Retrieved 5 May Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The representation of the cumulative rounding error of an algorithm as a Taylor expansion of the local rounding errors.

Master's Thesis in Finnish , Univ. Who Invented the Reverse Mode of Differentiation?. Applications of advances in nonlinear sensitivity analysis.

In System modeling and optimization pp. Retrieved 7 February Archived from the original on 19 April Learning while searching in constraint-satisfaction problems.

Multi-Valued and Universal Binary Neurons: Theory, Learning and Applications. Retrieved 23 October A self-organizing neural network model for a mechanism of pattern recognition unaffected by shift in position". Generalization of backpropagation with application to a recurrent gas market model" Neural Networks 1, The utility driven dynamic error propagation network.

Gradient-based learning algorithms for recurrent networks and their computational complexity. Theory, Architectures and Applications. Labelling unsegmented sequence data with recurrent neural nets. Proceedings of ICML'06, pp. Scaling up end-to-end speech recognition". Long Short-Term Memory recurrent neural network architectures for large scale acoustic modeling.

Proceedings of Interspeech A Neural Image Caption Generator". Retrieved 7 May Google unveils AI that learns on its own". South China Morning Post. Libratus beats top professionals". Measuring cognitive abilities in the machine kingdom". Archived from the original on 29 October Why firms are piling into artificial intelligence".

Archived from the original on 8 May Retrieved 19 May The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 February Retrieved 29 February Archived from the original on 24 June Archived from the original on 25 July Archived from the original on 11 May Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 26 January Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 4 December Archived from the original on 22 September Center for Technology Innovation at Brookings.

Retrieved 20 September Archived from the original on 28 October The Washington Post 25 February Retrieved 17 November , from https: Archived from the original on 18 November Retrieved 18 November Artificial Intelligence and Economic Theory: Skynet in the Market. Archived from the original on 5 October In Proceedings of the 9th conference on Computing Frontiers pp.

Retrieved 19 March Turing Historical influence and philosophical implications: Haugeland , pp. Gödel finds b implausible, and thus seems to have believed the human mind was not equivalent to a finite machine, i. He recognized that this was only a conjecture, since one could never disprove b.

Yet he considered the disjunctive conclusion to be a "certain fact". Lucas Penrose Refuting Mathematical Objection: Retrieved 27 April These Gödelian anti-mechanist arguments are, however, problematic, and there is wide consensus that they fail. Russell ; Peter Norvig Can Machines Act Intelligently? A Modern Approach 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: An introduction to the philosophy of mathematics. Cambridge University Press , Archived from the original on 29 January Retrieved 30 January Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original on 7 June Archived PDF from the original on 15 January Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 31 January Here are 5 reasons not to worry". Weizenbaum Crevier , pp. How susceptible are jobs to computerisation? Technological Forecasting and Social Change. Read this to prepare your future". Moral Machines , Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 29 November Archived from the original on 11 June Archived from the original on 12 November Journal of Consciousness Studies.

Searle's original formulation was "The appropriately programmed computer really is a mind, in the sense that computers given the right programs can be literally said to understand and have other cognitive states. Searle's original presentation of the thought experiment.

Henderson In fiction: Dimensions of Transhuman Worlds". Archived from the original on 28 December Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original on 12 February Edward Fredkin is quoted in McCorduck , p.

Utopia or real possibility? Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 29 December Ethics and Information Technology. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence 2nd ed. Luger, George ; Stubblefield, William Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving 5th ed. Neapolitan, Richard ; Jiang, Xia With an Introduction to Machine Learning.

A Modern Approach 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Winston, Patrick Henry An Introductory Course 2nd ed. Poole, David ; Mackworth, Alan Foundations of Computational Agents 2nd ed. Crevier, Daniel , AI: The Quest for Artificial Intelligence: A History of Ideas and Achievements. Archived from the original on 4 October Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 30 August Archived from the original PDF on 25 July Archived from the original on 2 March Artificial General Intelligence, Retrieved 3 February Robotics and Autonomous Systems.

Archived PDF from the original on 9 August Archived from the original PDF on 26 September Butler, Samuel 13 June Letters to the Editor. Retrieved 16 October — via Victoria University of Wellington. Clark, Jack 8 December Archived from the original on 19 February Archived from the original on 28 June What Computers Can't Do.

Dreyfus, Hubert ; Dreyfus, Stuart What Computers Still Can't Do. Darwin among the Machines. Edelman, Gerald 23 November Archived from the original on 8 October The Latest Answers to the Oldest Questions: Little, Brown and Co. Some basic theorems on the foundations of mathematics and their implications.

In Feferman, Solomon , ed. Unpublished Essays and Lectures. Hawkins, Jeff ; Blakeslee, Sandra Henderson, Mark 24 April We're getting carried away". Journal of Logic, Language and Information. Towards an Anytime Intelligence Test". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. University of Michigan Press. Theoretical Foundations of Artificial General Intelligence. Kahneman, Daniel ; Slovic, D.

Kaplan, Andreas; Haenlein, Michael Retrieved 13 November Katz, Yarden 1 November Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 25 October Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Krishan Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing. The Age of Spiritual Machines. The Singularity is Near. Where Mathematics Comes From: Law, Diane June University of Texas at Austin. Legg, Shane; Hutter, Marcus 15 June A Collection of Definitions of Intelligence Technical report. Lenat, Douglas ; Guha, R.

Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems. Archived from the original on 19 August Maker, Meg Houston AI Past, Present, Future". Archived from the original on 3 January Retrieved 16 October Markoff, John 16 February McCarthy, John ; Hayes, P. Archived from the original on 10 August McCarthy, John 12 November Finite and Infinite Machines. Norvig, Peter 25 June Archived from the original on 19 October Government Support for Computing Research.

Science and Civilization in China: Newell, Allen ; Simon, H. Archived from the original on 7 October O'Brien, James; Marakas, George Management Information Systems 10th ed. O'Connor, Kathleen Malone The Emperor's New Mind: A Field Guide to Genetic Programming. Archived from the original PDF on 18 January Intelligence is not enough: On the socialization of talking machines, Minds and Machines , vol.

What use is a Turing chatterbox? Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Archived from the original on 18 January Mind, language and society. In Shapiro, Stuart C. The Shape of Automation for Men and Management.

Skillings, Jonathan 3 July Later published as Solomonoff, Ray Section on Information Theory, part 2. Tao, Jianhua; Tan, Tieniu Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. Tecuci, Gheorghe March—April The Marriage of Computers and Machines.

Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 5 August How to Survive in the Post-Human Era". New horizons in psychology.

Retrieved 25 September AI will serve our species, not control it", Scientific American , vol. Artificial intelligence has staged a revival by starting to incorporate what we know about how children learn", Scientific American , vol. Researchers need new ways to distinguish artificial intelligence from the natural kind", Scientific American , vol. Multiple tests of artificial-intelligence efficacy are needed because, "just as there is no single test of athletic prowess, there cannot be one ultimate test of intelligence.

A so far insuperable stumbling block to artificial intelligence is an incapacity for reliable disambiguation. Myers, Courtney Boyd ed. Forbes June Raphael, Bertram Serenko, Alexander; Michael Dohan Integrating Neural and Symbolic Processes. Tom Simonite 29 December Breakthroughs in Artificial Intelligence".

Artificial Intelligence at Wikipedia's sister projects. Links to related articles. Alchemy Criticism of science Epistemology Faith and rationality History and philosophy of science History of science History of evolutionary thought Logic Metaphysics Pseudoscience Relationship between religion and science Rhetoric of science Sociology of scientific knowledge Sociology of scientific ignorance.

Philosophers of science by era. Plato Aristotle Stoicism Epicureans. Convergence evolutionary computing Evolutionary algorithm Evolutionary data mining Evolutionary multimodal optimization Human-based evolutionary computation Interactive evolutionary computation.

Artificial development Artificial intelligence Artificial life Digital organism Evolutionary robotics Fitness function Fitness landscape Fitness approximation Genetic operators Interactive evolutionary computation No free lunch in search and optimization Machine learning Mating pool Program synthesis. Alphabet of human thought Authority control Automated reasoning Commonsense knowledge Commonsense reasoning Computability Formal system Inference engine Knowledge base Knowledge-based systems Knowledge engineering Knowledge extraction Knowledge representation Knowledge retrieval Library classification Logic programming Ontology Personal knowledge base Question answering Semantic reasoner.

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Arcology Building printing Contour crafting Domed city. Bionic contact lens Head-mounted display Head-up display Optical head-mounted display Virtual retinal display. Electronic nose E-textiles Flexible electronics Molecular electronics Nanoelectromechanical systems Memristor Spintronics Thermal copper pillar bump. Airborne wind turbine Artificial photosynthesis Biofuels Carbon-neutral fuel Concentrated solar power Fusion power Home fuel cell Hydrogen economy Methanol economy Molten salt reactor Nantenna Photovoltaic pavement Space-based solar power Vortex engine.

Beltway battery Compressed air energy storage Flywheel energy storage Grid energy storage Lithium—air battery Molten-salt battery Nanowire battery Research in lithium-ion batteries Silicon—air battery Thermal energy storage Ultracapacitor. Smart grid Wireless power. Aerogel Amorphous metal Artificial muscle Conductive polymer Femtotechnology Fullerene Graphene High-temperature superconductivity High-temperature superfluidity Linear acetylenic carbon Metamaterials Metamaterial cloaking Metal foam Multi-function structures Nanotechnology Carbon nanotubes Molecular nanotechnology Nanomaterials Picotechnology Programmable matter Quantum dots Silicene Superalloy Synthetic diamond.

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Domotics Nanorobotics Powered exoskeleton Self-reconfiguring modular robot Swarm robotics Uncrewed vehicle. Interstellar travel Propellant depot Laser communication in space. Pneumatic transport Automated vacuum collection. Anti-gravity Cloak of invisibility Digital scent technology Force field Plasma window Immersive virtual reality Magnetic refrigeration Phased-array optics. Collingridge dilemma Differential technological development Disruptive Innovation Ephemeralization Exploratory engineering Fictional technology Proactionary principle Technological change Technological unemployment Technological convergence Technological evolution Technological paradigm Technology forecasting Accelerating change Moore's law Technological singularity Technology scouting Technology readiness level Technology roadmap Transhumanism.

Tracks Walking Hexapod Climbing Self-balancing unicycle. Technological unemployment Fictional robots. Risks from artificial intelligence. AI box AI takeover Control problem Existential risk from artificial general intelligence Friendly artificial intelligence Instrumental convergence Intelligence explosion Machine ethics Superintelligence Technological singularity.

Open Letter on Artificial Intelligence Ethics of artificial intelligence Controversies and dangers of artificial general intelligence Artificial intelligence as a global catastrophic risk Superintelligence: Subfields of and scientists involved in cybernetics. Polycontexturality Second-order cybernetics Catastrophe theory Connectionism Control theory Decision theory Engineering cybernetics Information theory Semiotics Synergetics Biological cybernetics Biosemiotics Biomedical cybernetics Biorobotics Computational neuroscience Homeostasis Management cybernetics Medical cybernetics Neurocybernetics Sociocybernetics Emergence Artificial intelligence.

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