Use of Percentiles and Z-Scores in Anthropometry". A better measure was found to be the waist-to-height ratio. Dezember um Herzinfarkt, Bluthochdruck, Schlaganfall und Arteriosklerose.
An ihnen kann eingeschätzt werden, dass die durchschnittliche Ernährung im frühen Mittelalter Europas recht gut war. Die Verwendung des BMI für die Diagnose von Untergewicht oder von körperfettbedingtem Übergewicht anhand fest definierter Grenzwerte ist sehr umstritten. Besonders stark trifft dies bei Sportlern zu. Der Körperbau-Entwicklungsindex von Wutscherk soll sich sogar zu einer biologischen Altersbestimmung eignen. Körpergewicht zur tatsächlichen Körperoberfläche dar, wobei die Körperoberfläche vom individuellen Körperbau Statur und dem Geschlecht einer Person abhängt.
Dieser ab populär gewordene Index berücksichtigt neben der Körperlänge auch den Hüftumfang mit der Formel:. Als eher kommerziell orientiert sind sogenannte Vitalanalysen anzusehen.
Als Krankheiten, die in Verbindung mit erhöhtem Bauchfett stehen, gelten z. Herzinfarkt, Bluthochdruck, Schlaganfall und Arteriosklerose. Für Schwangere ist diese Messmethode nicht geeignet. When the term BMI is used informally, the units are usually omitted. BMI provides a simple numeric measure of a person's thickness or thinness , allowing health professionals to discuss weight problems more objectively with their patients.
BMI was designed to be used as a simple means of classifying average sedentary physically inactive populations, with an average body composition. BMI is proportional to the mass and inversely proportional to the square of the height. So, if all body dimensions double, and mass scales naturally with the cube of the height, then BMI doubles instead of remaining the same. This results in taller people having a reported BMI that is uncharacteristically high, compared to their actual body fat levels.
In comparison, the Ponderal index is based on the natural scaling of mass with the third power of the height. However, many taller people are not just "scaled up" short people but tend to have narrower frames in proportion to their height.
Carl Lavie has written that, "The B. A frequent use of the BMI is to assess how much an individual's body weight departs from what is normal or desirable for a person's height. The weight excess or deficiency may, in part, be accounted for by body fat adipose tissue although other factors such as muscularity also affect BMI significantly see discussion below and overweight. BMI is used differently for children.
It is calculated in the same way as for adults, but then compared to typical values for other children of the same age. Instead of comparison against fixed thresholds for underweight and overweight, the BMI is compared against the percentile for children of the same sex and age.
A BMI that is less than the 5th percentile is considered underweight and above the 95th percentile is considered obese. Children with a BMI between the 85th and 95th percentile are considered to be overweight. Recent studies in Britain have indicated that females between the ages 12 and 16 have a higher BMI than males of the same age by 1. These recommended distinctions along the linear scale may vary from time to time and country to country, making global, longitudinal surveys problematic.
Japan Society for the Study of Obesity In Singapore, the BMI cut-off figures were revised in , motivated by studies showing that many Asian populations, including Singaporeans, have higher proportion of body fat and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus , compared with Caucasians at the same BMI. The BMI cut-offs are presented with an emphasis on health risk rather than weight.
In , the U. This had the effect of redefining approximately 29 million Americans, previously healthy , to overweight. This can partially explain the increase in the overweight diagnosis in the past 20 years, and the increase in sales of weight loss products during the same time. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of showed that As of [update] , The BMI ranges are based on the relationship between body weight and disease and death.
The BMI is generally used as a means of correlation between groups related by general mass and can serve as a vague means of estimating adiposity. The duality of the BMI is that, while it is easy to use as a general calculation, it is limited as to how accurate and pertinent the data obtained from it can be.
Generally, the index is suitable for recognizing trends within sedentary or overweight individuals because there is a smaller margin of error. This general correlation is particularly useful for consensus data regarding obesity or various other conditions because it can be used to build a semi-accurate representation from which a solution can be stipulated, or the RDA for a group can be calculated.
Similarly, this is becoming more and more pertinent to the growth of children, due to the fact that the majority of children are sedentary. Smaller effects are seen in prospective cohort studies which lend to support active mobility as a means to prevent a further increase in BMI. BMI categories are generally regarded as a satisfactory tool for measuring whether sedentary individuals are underweight , overweight , or obese with various exceptions, such as: The medical establishment  and statistical community  have both highlighted the limitations of BMI.
Mathematician Keith Devlin and the restaurant industry association Center for Consumer Freedom argue that the error in the BMI is significant and so pervasive that it is not generally useful in evaluation of health. The exponent in the denominator of the formula for BMI is arbitrary. The BMI depends upon weight and the square of height. Since mass increases to the 3rd power of linear dimensions, taller individuals with exactly the same body shape and relative composition have a larger BMI.
So short people are misled into thinking that they are thinner than they are, and tall people are misled into thinking they are fatter. For US adults, exponent estimates range from 1. In other words, persons with small frames would be carrying more fat than optimal, but their BMI reflects that they are normal. Conversely, large framed or tall individuals may be quite healthy, with a fairly low body fat percentage, but be classified as overweight by BMI.
Accurate frame size calculators use several measurements wrist circumference, elbow width, neck circumference and others to determine what category an individual falls into for a given height. In this situation, BMI will increase without any corresponding increase in weight.
Assumptions about the distribution between muscle mass and fat mass are inexact. BMI generally overestimates adiposity on those with more lean body mass e. A study in June by Romero-Corral et al. It is not clear where on the BMI scale the threshold for overweight and obese should be set. People who are overweight or obese are at higher risk for chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Anyone who is overweight should try to avoid gaining additional weight.
Additionally, if you are overweight with other risk factors such as high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, or high blood pressure , you should try to lose weight. Talk with your healthcare provider to determine appropriate ways to lose weight. For information about the importance of a healthy diet and physical activity in reaching a healthy weight, visit Healthy Weight. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content.
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